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The Course shall consist of two theory papers-I and II each of 75 Marks. The Pass marks in the two theory papers taken together will be 67 and the examination in each will be of 3 Hours duration. There will be one practical paper of 50 marks. The pass marks will be 23 and the examination will be of 6 hours duration in this paper.

The following will be detailed course.

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10 question to set, 5 to be answered. Question number one will be objective (15 Question) and it will be Compulsory 2 question will be set from group A and C each, and 5 from group B. At least one question from each groups is to answered. All question will be of equal marks.

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**SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY: 2 QUESTIONS**

Galilean Transformation, inertial frame of reference, Michelson – Morley experiment, Lorentz – Fitzyerald contraction, Einstein postulates, Lorentz Transformations and its Consequenses, Length contraction and time delation. Addtion of velocities Dragging of light by moving medium, Relativistic Doppler effect for propagation of light waves,aberration of light, variation of mass with velocity. Mass energy relation.

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**Mechanics And Properties Of Matter : 5 Questions**

Intertial frame and non – inertial frame of reference. Corioli’s and Centrifugal forces and their simple applications, Generalized Coordinates, constraints(holonomic – non holonomic), D’ Alembert’s Principal and Lagrange’s equations of motion, Hamiltonian’s equations of motionr andr theirr simpler applications.

Gravitational potential and field due to bodies of regular geometrical shape.Motion in central field, kepler’s laws, Two particle motion in a central field.Elasticity and elastic constants. Bending of beams and Cantilever. Torsion of Cylinder and rigidity modulus by flat spiral spring, non-flat spiral spring. Effects of temperature and pressure on elasticity.

Surface tension and surface energy. Principle of virtual work and its application to surface tension.Ripples and gravity waves.Surface tension by the methods of ripples.Effect Of temperature and pressure on surface tension.

Perfect fluids, Equation of continuity, Euler’s equation for perfect fluids, Bernoulli’s equation, viscosity of liquids, critical velocity, Poiseuille’s formula with correction, Flow of a Compressible fluid through a narrow tube, viscosity of gases, Rankin’s method, Effect of temperature and pressure on viscosity

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**SOUND : 2 Question**

Differential equation of waves, equation of progressive and stationary waves.

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**B.Sc. PART – I **

Compression waves in fluid and extended solids free, damped and for oscillations in one dimension. Fourier’s series and its application rectangular and saw – tooth waves. Vibration of strings. Intensity and loudness of sound and their measurement. Acoustics of build.

** PAPER – II**

**THEORY**

**Time : 3 Hours Full Marks**

** **10 Question to be set 5 to be answered question number one will objective (15 Question) and it will be compulsory.4 Questions will be from group A and 5 from group B. Atleast one questions from group A and from group B have to be answered. All questions will be of equal marks.

**HEAT : 4 Question**

Derivation of Maxwell’s law of distribution of velocities and its experimental verification, Equilibration of energy. Mean free path.

Transport phenomean-Viscosity, Conduction and diffusion, Brownian motion – Langevin and Einstein’s Theories and experimental determination of Avogadro’s numbers.

Rectilinear flow of heat in metal rod, Conductivity by periodic flow method, Relation between thermal and electrical Conductivities. Vander waa!’s equation of state from viral theorem.

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**THERMODYNAMICS: 5 QUESTION**

Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Definition of temperature. First and Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot’s engine and Carnot’s theorem, Absolute scale of temperature, Classius’s inequality, Entropy, Entropy changes in reversible and irreversible processes, Enthalpy, Helmholtz and Gibb’s function, Gibb’s- Helmholtz equation, Maxwell’s equaltion and its application to simple physical :

problems.

: Thermodynamic description of phase transition, Chemical potential, Latent heat of transition, Clapeyron equation. Joule-Thomson effect, Liquefiction of gasses with special reference to hydrogen and helium, Production and measurement of low temperature.

Black body radiation, Kirchhoff’ s law, Stefan’s law, Wien’s Law, Planck’s law : and its experimental verification. ” Einstein and Deby Theories of specific heat of ‘solids

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__PRACTICAL PAPER__

**Time : 6 Hours Full Marks**

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The course shall include the following experiments: ,

2. Young’s modulus by Flexure of beam.

3. Elastic Constants by Searlc’s method,

4. Rigidity modulus by-

(ii) Maxwell’s needle.

5. Moment of inertia of Fly-Wheel

6. Surface tension by Jager’s method.

7. Surface tension by method ripples.

8. surface tension of soap bubble.

9. Co – efficient of viscosity of gas by Rankines’ method.

10. Co- efficient of viscosity of water by capillary flow method.

11. Laws of transverse vibrations by sonometer.

12. Frequency of tuning fork by melde’ method.

13. Specific heat of solids by radiation correction.

14. Specific heat of liquid by cooling method.

15. Thermal conductivity of copper.

16. Thermal conductivity of Ebonite by Lee’s Disc method.

17. Determination of J by Mechanical method.

**B.Sc. Physics (Sub/Gen)**

**Part – I **

The course shall consist of one Theory paper of 75 marks. The pass.Marks will be 23 and the examination will be of 3 hours duration. There will be one practical paper of 25 marks, The pass marks will be 10 and the examination

will be of 3 hours duration.

The Following. will be the detailed Courses-

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**Time : 3 Hours Full Marks : 75**

10 Questions to be set, 5 to be answered. Question number one will be

objective (15.Questions} and it will be Compulsory. 4 questions will be set

from group-A, 2 from Group-B and 3 from Group-C At least one question from

each group is to be answered. All questions will be of equal marks.

**RELATIVITY, MECHANICS, GENERAL 4 Questions **

**PROPERTIES OF MATTER: **

Galilean Transformation, Inertial franie of reference, Michelson- Morley Experiment, Lorentz-Fitzerald construction, Einstein postulates,Lorentz “Transformation and its Consequences, Length Contraction and time dilation.

Addition of velocities, Relativistic Doppler’s eddect for propagation of light waves, variation of mass with velocity, Mass Energy relation. Inertial frame and non-inertial frame of reference, Corioli’s and Centrifugal forces and their simple applications, Motion in Central field, kepler’s law. generalised Coordinates, Constraints (holonomic: non-holonomic), Lagrange’s equations of motion and their simple applications. Elasticity and-elastic Constants, Relation between elastic Constants, –Bending of beams and Cantilever. Torson of cylinder and rigidity modulus by flat spring. Effect of temperature and pressure on elasticity. Surface tension and surface energy, Ripple’ and gravity waves, Surface tension by me method ripples , Effect of temperature and Pressure on surface tension.

**B.Sc. Part –I**

Perfect fluids. Equation of Continuity, Euler’s equation for perfect fluids. Bernoulli’s equation. Viscosity of liquids, Critical velocity, Poiseuuille’s formula with correction. Flow of Compressible fluid through a narraw tube, Viscosity of gasses Rankin’s method. Effect of temperature on viscosity.

**Group-B**

** 2 Questions**

**WAVES AND ACOUSTICS: **

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Differential equation Of wave, Equation of Progressive waves, Stationary waves. Compression waves in fluids and in extended solids, Free, damped and forced oscillations, Fourier analysis. Vibration of string. Intensity and loudness of Sound and (heir measurement, Acoustics of buildings Ultrasonics.

**Heat And Thermodynamics 3 Questions**

Maxwell’s law of distribution of velocities and its experimental verification, Degree of freedom and Equipartition of energy. Mean free path and its experimental verification, Perfect gas equation and Vander wall’s equation of state. Laws of thermodynamics, Absolute scale of temperature, Carot’s engine. Entry and its calculation in simple cases .Thermodynamics relations and their application to simple physical problems. Clausius-clapeyron equation, Joule-Thomson effect, Liquification of gases with special reference to Helium, Super fluidity of helium. Kirchhoff’ s law and black body radiation, Stefan- Boltzeman law and its experimental verification.

__PRACTICAL PAPER__

**Time : 3 Hours **

**The Courses shall include the following experiments-**

The course shall include the following experiments

2 Young’s modulus by bending of beam. . | .

3, Moment of inertia by Fly Wheel. | :

4. Specific heat of solid with radiation correction. .

5.. Specific heat of liquid by Cooling method.

6 Thermal Conductivity of copper. .

7. Thermal Conductivity of Ebonite by Lee’s Disc method.

9. Frequency of Tuning Forks by meld’s experiment.

10. Surface Tension by Capillary tube method.

11. Elastic Constants by Searle’s method.

12 Rigidity modulus by Barton’s apparatus.

13. Rigidity modulus by Maxwell needle.

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__Chemistry (Hons)__

**Paper – I (A) Physical chemistry**

**Full Marks : 50**

There will be Ten Questions each of ten (10) marks including question No. 1 (one) will be of objective type and compulsory covering the entire syllabus. Three questions will be set from each group out of which – four to be answered selecting at least ONE from each group.

** ****GASEOUS STATE:**

Kinetic theory of gases, derivation of kinetic equation deduction of gas laws. Calculation of gas constant and kinetic energy. Maxwell – Botzman ** **distribution law of velocities and energy (derivation not needed), distribution curves at different temperatures, calculation of most probable ‘’average and root mean square velocities of molecules. Rea and ideal gases.Compressibility factor, derivations from ideal behavior of gases, equation of state for real gases. Van der waal equation of state and its application. Boyle’s temperature critical phenomenon Law of corresponding state and reduced equation of state.

** ****PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS:**

** **Molar volume, vapour pressure, surface tension, parachor and viscosity.

** SOLID STATE:**

** **Type of solid, crystal forces, seven crystal system and bravis lattice, law of crystallography Weiss indices, miller indices and indexing of planes, crystallography and braggs equation analysis of cubic crystal system and elementary idea of crystal defects.

** 1. **** CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM:**

Reversible and irreversible reaction, statement of law of mass action and its kinetic derivation, equilibrium constant for homogenous and heterogeneous reactions, relationship between Kc, Kp and Kx. Le- chatelier’s principal and its applications.

Heats in chemical reactions, enthalpy, standard enthalpy changed, hess’s law kirchoff’s law. Bond energies and their calculation.

Thermo dynamic terms; systems, extensive and intensive properties, thermodynamic process, state function, first law of thermodynamics.Maximum work done in a reversible, irreversible, isothermal and adiabatic changes heat capacities (Cp & Cv and relation between them).

1. CHEMICAL KINETICS:

Rate of reaction, order and molecularity, expression for specific rate constant of first and second order reaction, hald life period, unit of rate constants. Determination of order of reactions.

2. THEORY OF DILUTE SOLUTIONS:

Colligative properties, osmosis, osmotic pressure and its experimental determination, Van’t Hoftfactor, vapour pressure of solution and Raoult’s law,Relative lowering of vapour pressure, experimental determination of relative,lowering of vapour pressure, molecular Wt determination, relation between somotic pressure and lowering of vapour pressure, ideal and non-ideal solutions and Azeotrope, Elevation of Boiling point, depression of freezing point, experimental determination, abnormal colligative. properties.

3. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM:

Rate of reaction, order and molecularity, expression for specific rate constant of first and second order reaction, hald life period, unit of rate constants. Determination of order of reactions.

2. THEORY OF DILUTE SOLUTIONS:

Colligative properties, osmosis, osmotic pressure and its experimental determination, Van’t Hoftfactor, vapour pressure of solution and Raoult’s law,Relative lowering of vapour pressure, experimental determination of relative,lowering of vapour pressure, molecular Wt determination, relation between somotic pressure and lowering of vapour pressure, ideal and non-ideal solutions and Azeotrope, Elevation of Boiling point, depression of freezing point, experimental determination, abnormal colligative. properties.

3. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM:

lonic product of water, pH, pKa, pKb and pKw. Buffer solution, pH of buffer solution, buffer index, buffer capacity, buffer range and idea of buffer solutions in day to day life, Dissociation constant of acids and bases. , common ion effect, HSAB Concept.

There will be TEN questions each of ten (10) marks including Question No. | (one) will be of objective type and compulsory covering the syllabus. Three questions will be set from each group out of which FOUR to be answered selecting at least ONE from each group.

** **

**Group – A**

1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:

Bohr’s Postulates and its applications, Bohr-Sommerfeld theory, Bohr-Sommerfeld theory, Orbital and their shapes Question numbers. Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule Aufbau principle. Electronic configuration of elements.

** 2. ****CHEMICAL BONDING:**

lonic bond; Energetic involved on ionic bond formation, Born-Haber cycle, lattice neergy, radius ration rule, Fajan’s rule, and inert pair effect Covalent bond; Exceptions to octet rule, sigma (s), Pi (p) and Teu (t) bond hybridization, Van der Wall’s forces and Hydrogen bonding.

3. **CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODIITY:**

** **Classification of elements based on electronic configuration. Periodicity; Atomic size, atomic/Ionic radii, ionisation energy, electron affinity, electron negativity, metallic character, hardness and softness,M.Pt. , & B.Pt, Lattice energy and hydration energy.

**GROUP – B**

**HYDROGEN AND HYDIDES:**

Position in P-T., isotopes of hydrogen, different forms of hydrogen hydrides, ionicn- covalent metallic and interstitial, H,O, : Preparation, properties, structure, Use and strength.

2. **PRIMIPLE OF METALLURGY:**

(A) Position in P-T., isotopes of hydrogen, different forms of hydrog,hydrides, ionicn- covalent metallic and interstitial, H,O, : Preparation,properties, structure, Use and strength.

(b) Chemistry of the following metals: Li. Be, Ra. Si and Pb.

3. **CHEMISTRY OF HALOGENS:**

Preparation/Extraction, idation states and halides. Inter-halogen compounds .

IUPAC rule for nomenclature of inorganic compounds (Hetero and isopolyaions).

** 2. ****(a) MOLECULAR SYMMETRY:**

Symmetry elements and symmetry operations, centre of symmetry, axis of symmetry and plane of symmetry

**(b) **Types of magnetic behaviors, para dia and ferromagnetism

** 3.****(a) **Principles involved in the volumetric estimations of Cu++ iron and Ca++

**(b) **Principles involved in the gravimetric estimation of Ni++ Ba++ and so’’.

**Paper – I (C)**

**ORGANIC CHEMISTRY**

**Full Marks : 50**

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There will be TEN questions each of ten (10) marks including Question No. I( one) will be of objective type and compulsory covering the syllabus.

Three question will be set from each group out of which FOUR to he answered selecting at least ONE from each group.

**GROUP – A**

** (a) **Shapes and structure of organic molecules; hybridisation. Bond angle, “bond length and bond energy, shapes/structures of methane ethane, acetylene and benzene molecules.

** (b) **Nomenclature of organic compounds, acquaintance with IUPAC nomenclature of aliphatic and aromatic compounds.

** 2. ****REACTION MEHANISM:**

Cleavage of bonds, inductive effect, electromeric effect and mesomeric,effect, resonance, types of reagents and reaction intermediates.

** 3. ****STEROCHEMISTRY:**

Brief idea of geometrical and optical Isomerism.

**GROUP – B **

(a) Alcohol: Monohydric, dihydric, trihydric and unsaturated alcohols.

(b) Aldehydes and ketones.

**2. ****Study of the following Compunds: **

(a) Carboxylic acids, mono and dicarboxylic acids.

(b) Organometallic compounds of Mg and its synethetic application

(c) Amines and urea, Aromaticity and structure of benzene monosubstituted benzene derivatives, orientation and directive influence of different group in benzene.

**GROUP – C**

(a) Qualitative and quantitative estimation of C, H, N, S, P and Halogens in organic compounds.(b) Molecular weight determination of organic acids by silver salt method and organic based by platinchloride method.

**2. Purification of Organic Compounds: **

Different method of purification of organic compounds and criteria of purity, Chromatography.

3. (a) Synthetic fibres. Rubber and Plastics.

(b) Soaps and detergents including chemistry of their actions.

**B.Sc. Chemistry (Hons)**

**PAPER – II**

**PRATICAL**

**Time : 6 Hours**

1. Inorganic mixture analysis six redicals inclusive of interfering radicals.

2. Organic Detection ; Detection of Nitrogen. in Organic Compounds. Detection of the following functional groups in organic compound

(i) -OH (Phenolic)

(ii) -CHO

(iii) >C=o

(iv}-COOH

(v) NH2 (vi) -NO2

3. Note book and viva-voce.

There will be TEN questions each of fifteen (15) marks including Question

No.I (one) will be of objective type and compulsory covering the entire syllabus.

Three questions will be set from each group out of witch FOUR to be answered selecting at least ONE from each group.

**Group – A**

**PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY**

**1. ****Gaseous State:**

Kinetic theory of gases; postulates, derivation of kinetic gas equation, deduction of gas laws, calculation of gas constants and kinetic energy, Real and ideal gases. Deviations from edeat behaviour and van der waals equation of state.

**2. ****Thermocchemistry:**

Heat in chemical reactions, enthalpy, standard enthalphy changes, Hess’s laws, Kirchhoff s law, Bond energies and determination.

**3. ****Ionic Equilibrium: **

lonic product of water, pH, pKa, Pkb, Pkw, Buffer solution, idea of buffer solution in day to day life, Solubility product and its applications in salt analysis, common ion effect, conductance, specific conductance equivalent conductance and molar conductance.

**4. ****Colligative Properties:**

Collogative properties, osmosis, osmotic pressure and its determination, vapour pressure, Raoult”s law of lowering of vapour pressure, Relation between Osmotic pressure and lowering of vapour pressure. Elevation of Boiling point and depression of freezing point.

**Group – B**

**Inorganic Chemistry **

** 1.****Atomic Structure :**

Bohr’s postulates and explanation of hydrogen spectra, shapes of orbitals. Quantum numbers. Paulis exclusion principle. Hund’s rules, aufbau principle, Electronic configuration of elements.

** 2. ****Chemical Bonding:**

Ionic and covalent bonds, sigma (s)Pi (p) and Tau (t) bonds, hybridization.

** 3. ****Chemistry of following elements-**

Li, Sn,Pb, Fluorine, Chlorine and iodine

** 4. ****Isotopes:**

Brief idea of detection and separation of isotopes, tracer techniques, radiocarbon dating.

**Group – C**

**Organic Chemistry**

(a) Alcohols; monohydric and glycerol.

(b) Grignard regent.

4. Purification of organic compounds; criteria of purity and chromatography.

**(Sub & Gen.)**

**Chemistry Practical**

** **

**Time : 5 Hours Full Marks: 25**

1. Inorganic mixture analysis with four radicals with our Interferring radical 12

2. Organic Detection -Detection of Nitrogen in Organic Compounds.

“Detection of the following functional groups in organic compounds.

(i) OH (Phenolic;

(ii) CHO

(iii) >C=o,

(iv) –COOH

(v) –NH2

(vi) –NO2

Record of class and viva – voc

**Math**

**PART – I**

**B.A. / B.Sc. (Hons):**

will be twelve questions to be set and six to be answered in each.

**B.Sc. Part – I**

paper selecting at least one from each group, One question will be objective. short answer type will be compulsory. This question will be of” twenty marks and the rest questions are of each of sixteen marks in both the papers.** **

** Paper – I**

**1. ****Group – A :**

**2. ****Group – B :**

Matrics and: Linear Programming

**3. ****Group – C:**

Theory Equations:

**Group – A **

**Set Theory**

General forms of Demorgan’s |laws Generalized cartesian product, Equivalence relation, Partial and total order relation, Countable and uncountable sets, countability of real, rational, imational andalgebraie number system, composition and factorization of mappings.

**Trigonometry**

Hyperbolic functions, Resolution into factors, Summation of series, (C+is) method only and Gregory’sm series.

**Group – B**

Symmetric and Skew-symmetric matrices, Hermitian and skew- Hermitiat matrices, Transpose, Adjoint and inverse of matrix. Orthogonal matrices, Rank of a matrix.** **

** Linear Programming:**

“Convex set and their properties, Linear Programming Problems and their graphical solutions, Theory of Simplex method and their simple applications, Transportation problem, Assignment problems.

**Group – C **

**Theory of Equations:**

Fundamental theorem of Algebra, Relation between roots and Coefficients of a Polynimial equations. Evaluation of Symmetric Functions roots, Carbon’s Solution of a Cubic, Euler’s solution of a biquadratic equation. Descartes rule of sign.** **

**Paper – II**

**Time : 3 Hours**

**1. ****Group- A: **Differential Calculus:

**2. ****Group – B: **Integral Calculus:

**3. ****Group – C : **Analytical geometry of two dimensions:

**4. ****Group – D: **Analytical geometry of three dimension.

**Group – A**

**Differential Calculus:**

Successive differentiation lebnitz’s theorem. Partial differentiation, Euler’s theorem, Exact differential, indeterminate from, L. hospital’s maclaurin’s and series expansion, Tangents and Normal, curvature, asymptotes.

**Group – B :**

**Integral Calculus:**

** **Integration of rational and irrational function, Notion of integral as limit ‘of a sum, Evaluation of definite integrals, Reduction formulae, Curve tracing, areas of curves, Length of curves, Volumes and surface area of solids of “revolution, Moment of Inertia, Centre of granty.

**Group – C :**

Analytical Geometry of two dimensions: System of Circles, Change of axes, condition for the general equation of Second: degree to represent Parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, Equation of tangents and normal in the case of general equation of second degree (via calculus in particular cases. Chord of contact, Polar line and pair of tangents, Polar equation of conic section, Tangents and Normals in polar form.

**Group – D:**

**Analytical Geometry Of Three Dimensions:**

Rectangular, Spherical, polar and cylindrical co- ordinates, angle between straight lines, equation of planes and lines. Shortest distance between skew lines. Sphere cone and cylinder, standard equation of coincoids, normal and conjugate diameters of an eliposid.

**Math **

**(Sub & Gen)**

“Stress should be given on development of ideas and theory rather than on solving problems. Problems should be short and intelligent, there be sixteen questions to be set and eight to be answered selecting at least one from each group, One question will be objective/short answer ” type and all be compulsory. This question will be of sixteen marks and the rest questions are of each of twelve marks.

**Paper – I**

** Time : 3 Hours Full Marks : 100**

** 1. ****Group – A **

Set theory and : matrics

** 2. ****Group – B**

Linear programming and trigonometry:

** 3. ****Group – C **

Analytical geometry of two dimensions:

** 4. ****Group – D**

Analytical geometry of three dimensions:

** 5. ****Group – E**

Theory of equations

**Set Theory:**

Generalised form of Demorgan’s laws, Cartesian product, Equivalence relation, partial order relation, Chain, Countable and uncountable sets, countability of real, rational and rational, Set mapping.

** Matrics : **

Symmetric and Skew-symmetric matrices, Hermitian and Skew- Hermitian matrices. Transfer, Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix, Rank of a matrix. Solution of linear equation by matrix.

**Linear Programming:**

Convex set and their properties. Linear Programming Problems are their graphical solutions, Transportation and Assignment problems.

**Trigonometry:**

Hyperbolic functions. Resolution into factors, Summation of trigonometrical series (C+is) method only

**ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY OF TWO DIMENSIONS :**

Change of asix, System of circles, Coaxial circles, standard equation of Parabola. Ellipse and Hyperbola, Equation of tangent Chord of contact.

**Group – D**

**ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY OF THREE DIMENSIONS :**

Cartesian, Polar and cylinderical Co-ordinate system-Angles between straight lines, Equation of Planes and straight lines, shortest distance between lines.

**Group – E**

**Theory Of Equations:**

Fundamental theorem of Algebra, relation between roots and Coefficients of a Polynomial equations. Evaluation of Symmetric Function of roots, Garden’solution of a Cubic.

__B.Sc. BOTANY HONOURS__

**There shall be two eight papers each consisting of 100 marks.**

** B.Sc. Part – I **

** (BOTANY HONOURS)**

There shall be two theorectical papers each carrying 75 amrks and one practical paper carrying 50 marks.

**Paper – I **

**Time : 3 Hours**

The paper will consists of ten questions. Cut of which question No. | will

be of objective type and compulsory, covering the entire syllabus, Remaining

9 questions has to be set from all the five groups ; Four questions have to be

answered besides. Questions No.l, selecting.one question from each group.

**1. ****PLANT KINGDOM:**

Group-l, Classification of Plant Kindow and -criteria leage on mayer’ssetlen

kingdoms Bio diversities of plant, orgin evolution-and phylogeny of land plant

** B.Sc. Part – I **

**Group – 2 **General Character, Classification, evolutionary trends ultra structure

of Algal cell and economic importance of Algae, Salient features and life.

history of Cyanophyceae chlorphyceac – volvox, oedogonium, coleochaete;

Xanlhophyeeae – vaucheria Phacophyceae-Ectocarpus. Fucus and

rhodophyceae – polysiphonia.

**Group – 3 Fungal Lichens And Plant Diseases:**

General Characters, Modern classification, types of fungal spores and

mode of their economic importance Salient features and life

‘history of Mastigomycotina -Pythium, Phyto phthora, Zycomycotina-Mucor,

. Ascomycotina -Eurotium,Peziza, Basidiomycotina-Puccinia, Ustilago.

. “Agaricus, Detuleromycotina-A ltemaria, Cercospora. General idea of Lichens,

– Classification and their types.

**Group – 4 Bryophytes:**

Classification and comparative account of morphology, anatomy and reproduction in hepaticopsida – Riccia and marchantia; anthocerop – topsida – anthoceros; Bryyopsida – Funaria; Evolution of sporophytes and gametophytes; ecological aspect and economic importance.

**Group – 5 Pteridophytes:**

Salient features of primitive vascular plants; classification; comparative account of morphology, anatomy and reproduction in psilopsida – Rhynia and psilotum, Luycopsida – Lycopoxlium, Selaginella, Sphenosida- Equistum and pteropsida – marsilea,

**Group – 6 **Gymnospermsr: Salient features and classification; Evolution significance. Comparative account of morphology, anatomy and reproduction in cycadopsida – cycas, coniferopsida – oinus, genetopsida – gentum and their economic relevance.

** Plant Fossils- **Definition and its scope, conditions of fossilization and mode of preservation. A brief account of lyginodendron and williamsonia. A brief reference of plant fossils found in bihar.

**Anqious Perm:**

Vnique – features and diversity. Primitive and advance features.

**Paper – II **

** Cell Biology And Genetics**

**Time : 3 Hours Full Marks : 75**

** **

Ten questions has to set. Out of which question no. I will be of objective type and compulsory covering the entire syllabus. Out of remaining 9 questions which has to be set from all the two groups, four questions has to be answered besides questions no. I selecting one from Group – A two from Group – B and One from Group – C

**Group – A : Cell Biology**

**1. ****Cell:**

Historical background shape, size and structure of the cell; comparative

account Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell;

**2. ****Nucleus:**

Ultrastructure of nuclear envelop, unclear pore comples, matrix and nucleoplasm, DNA and histones;

**3. ****Ribsome:**

Structure of ribosomes and its functional siginificance in protein synthesis.

**B.Sc. Part – I **

**4. ** **Mitochondria and chloroplast:**

Origin structure, biogenesis and function of mitochonnda and chloride

**5.Structure and function of other organelles:**

Gogicomplex, Endoplasmic reticulum, Lysosome, Glyoxysome, Microbodies and cytoskeleton.

**1. ****Cell wall and cell membrane;**

Origin, ultrastructure, chemical constituents and their functions:

**2. ****Techniques in cell biology:**

Principles of light and electron microscope; chromatography; TLC and HPLC, gel electrophoresis and autoradiography and its application

**Group – B: GENETICS**

1. Mendel’s experiments and the laws of inheritance,

2. Gene interaction and modified dihybrid ratio-Complementary.,

Supplementary, Duplicate, Epistatis and inhibitory factors.

3. Multiple allelisms,

4. Linkage and crossing over.

5.Balance theory of sex determination and sex linked inheritance,

6. Extra-nuclear inheritance :

7. Population Genetics and Evolution ; Evolution by natural selection,

in populations: Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Genetic diversity,

Darwinian evolution.

8. Brief of Human genetics such as Genetic diseases, Genes and cancer,

(gene therapy, }

9. Mutation and its role in crop improvement, change in chromosome

structure (Chromosomal aberrations) and change in chromosome numbers

(Polyploidy). |

10. Methods of crop improvement: [introduction; pure line and mass selection,

hybridization in self and cross pollinated crops; acclimatization; mutation

and polyploid breeding; |

11. Germplam conservation and its role in crop improvement.

**Practical Paper**

** Basedon Paper – I & II **

**Time : 4 Hours**

** **

1. Morphology and structural details of the forms prescribed in the syllabus

and their temporary stained microscopic slides-

(a} Algac-{Any two)

(b) Fungi-one

(c} Bryophytes-one

(d) Pteridophytes-one

(e) Gymnosperms-one

** **

2. ** **Study of different stages of chromosomes in Mitosis/Mciosis by

or squash technique of onion root tip or pollen grains off flax

**3. **To study experiments on modified Mendelian ratio with the heip of

coloured seeds

** **

**4. **Emasculation and pollination technique in the flower provided by the** **

** **

**5. **To comment upon the Spot (any five) 05

** **

**6. **Class Records

**7. **Viva-Vooe** **

** B.Sc. Part – I **

** **

There shall. two papers in B.Sc. Botany subsidiary courses, each

containing LOO marks which shall be opted in First(B.Sc.-1) and Second (B.Sc.

II) years of another honours course described below:

**B.Sc. Part – I Subsidiary Courses**

There shall be one theoretical paper, carrying 75 marks and one practical paper carrying 25 marks in first year of B.Sc. Honours examinations.

**Paper – I **

**Biodibersity of Microbes and Cryptogams; Cytogenetics and Cropimprovement Structure, Development and Reproduction in Plants**

**Time : 3 Hours Full Marks : 75**

Ten questions has to be set. Question No. | will be objective type and

compulsory covering the entire syllabus, Remaining 9 questions have to he

Set from ‘three groups (A, B, C) in which four questions are 10 be answered

basides Question No l. selecting at least one from each group.

**Group – A **

**Biodiversity of Microbes And Cryptogams**

**1. **‘General: account of viruses, cyanobacteria and Mycoplasma:

; ‘Structure, nutrition and reproduction in Bacteria, their economic

importance, Role of microbes in fermentation and N2 -fixation.

**2. ****Fungi**: General characters and classification; important features and life cycle of Mastigomycotina-Phytophthora, zypomycotina-Mucor,

Ascomycotina Peziza Basidiomycotina-Puccinia, Deuteromycotina-

‘Ceteospora; General account of Lichens and their economic utilizations.

**3. ****Bryophyta**: Structure, reproduction and classification of Hepaticopsida

Marehantia, Anthoceroptopsida-Anthoceros and Bryopsida-Funaria and

their economic utilization.

**4. ****Pteridophyta:** Struct, reproduction and classification of psilopsida

Psilotum, Lycopsida-Selaginella, Sphenopsida-Equisetum

pteropsida – marsilea.

**Group – B**

** Cytogenetics and cropimprovement**

1. Structure of the cell as seen under electron Microscope: Mitosis and

Meiosis: Structure of chromosomes;

2. Mendelian -laws of inheritance: DNA as a hereditary material and its

function mutation: Linkage and crossing Crossing over.

**Group – C **

**Structure, Development and Reproduction in Plants**

1. The basic body plan of a flowering plant mosular type of growth,

2. Shoot system: Meristems, Initation, activity and functions of cambium;

**B.Sc. Part – I **

Amomalous secondary in Boerhaavia and Dracaena; Root-stem transition

and Peri derm.

3, Embryological development: Development of anther, pollengrains,

embryosac. fertilization, endosperm and embry, :

4 Significance of seed.

5.Vegetative reproduction: Vegetative propagation, grafting, economic: aspects

**Practical Paper Based On **

** Paper – I **

**Time : 3 Hours**

**1****. **Observation of disease symptoms in hosts infected by Virus, Mycoplasms

and fiugi, section cutting of diseased material and klentification of the

puthogens (of the Genera mentioned in theory paper

**2** Morphology and structural details of Algae, fungi, Bryophyta,

pteridophyta, included in theory paper and identifications

**3** Study of different stages of mitosis/mneiosis of study of Primary and

secondary (both, normal and abnormal} structures of roots and stents of angiospermic plants, Or, To study the structure of anther and pollen grains oc ovule and embryo

sac development or simple experiments to show vegetative propagation

leaf cutting in Bryophyllum, stem cutting in rose’ sugarcane.

4. To identify and Comment upon forms I – V

5. Practical records

6. Vive-Voce

**B.Sc. General Course of Botany**

There shall be three papers in B.Sc. Botany general course, containing 100 marks.

**B.Sc. Botany : Part – I **

** (General)**

There shall be three papers in B.Sc. Botany General Course, each

containing 100 marks.

**Biodiversity of Microbes, Cryptogams, Cell Biology, Genetics **

**And Plant Diseases**

**Time : 3 Hours**

Ten questions have to be set. Question No. | wil be objective type

compulsory covering the entire syllabus. Remaining 9 questions have to be

set from four groups (A&D, B,C) out of which four questions have to be

answered besides question No. I, selcting at least one from each group.

**Group – A **

** Biodiversity of Microbes**

1. General account of viruses, Cyanobacteria and mycoplasma; Structure,

nutrition and reproduction in Bacteria: their economic importance, Role

of microbes in agriculture and industries. “

**B.Sc. Part – I **

** Cryptogams**

1. Algae: General characters, classification and economic importance,

_ Diagnostic features and life cycle of chlorophyceac-volvox, Oedogonium

Xanthophyceae .-Vaucheria, Phaeophyceae – Ectocarpus and

Rhodophyceae’ Polysiphonia.

2. Fungi: General characters and classification /important features and life

cycl of Mastigomycotina-Phytophthora, Zygomycotina-Mucor,

Ascomycotina Peziza, Basidiomycotina-Puccinia, Deuteromycotina-

Cercospora, General account of Lichens and their economic utitizations,

3. Bryophyta: Structure, reproduction and calssification of

Hepaticopsida-Marchantia, Anthoceroptopsida-Anthocergs and

Bryopsida Funaria and their economic utilizations.

4. Preridophyta: Structure, preproduction and classsification of Psilopsida-

. Psttotum; Lycopsida-Selaginella, Sphenopsida-Equisetum and

. Pigtopsida-Marsiles.

2. Fungi: General characters and classification /important features and life

cycl of Mastigomycotina-Phytophthora, Zygomycotina-Mucor,

Ascomycotina Peziza, Basidiomycotina-Puccinia, Deuteromycotina-

Cercospora, General account of Lichens and their economic utitizations,

3. Bryophyta: Structure, reproduction and calssification of

” Hepaticopsida-Marchantia, Anthoceroptopsida-Anthocergs and

Bryopsida Funaria and their economic utilizations.

4 Preridophyta: Structure, preproduction and classsification of Psilopsida-

_. Psttotum; Lycopsida-Selaginella, Sphenopsida-Equisetum and

__«. Pigtopsida-Marsiles.

**Group – C**

** Cell Biology & Genetics**

** **

**1. **Structure of the cell and cell organelles; Mitosis and Meiosis, Physical an

chemical structure of chromosomes.

**2. **Mendelian laws of inheritance: DNA as a hereditary material: structure”

replication and function of DNA and RNA

**3. **Linkage and Crossing over

**4. **Mutation

**5. **Polyploidy

**Group – D **

** Plant Diseases**

**Etiology, symptoms and central of important plant diseases of Bihar-**

(a) Tobacco mosaic virus

(b) Late Blight of Potato

(c) Rust of wheat

(a) Red rot of sugarcane

**Practical Paper Based on**

** Paper – I **

**Time : 3 Hours Full Marks : 25**

** **

**1. **observation of disease symptoms in hosts infected

by virus. Mycoplasma and fungi; section cutting of

diseased material and indentification of the pathogens

: as per general mentioned in theory paper .

**2. **Morphology and structural details of Algae Fungi

Bryophyta, Pteridophyta inclued in the syllabus of

the theory paper and their temporary slide preparation

and identification.

**3. **Study of different stages of mitosis/meiosis.

**B.Sc. Part – I **

**4. ** Comment upon sports 1-V

**5. ** Practical records

**6. ** viva- Voce

B.Sc. Zoology (Part – I)

Subsidiary / General Zoology

Paper – I (Theory)

Time : 3 Hours

Five Questions are to be set from each group. Students shall have to

answer five questions attempting at east two from any group.

Group-A: Nonchordate

1. Bionomics, General characters, Classification (upto orders) of teh following

Phyla: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata Platyhreiminthes, Aschelminthe,

Anneleda, Arthropods, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Hemichordata.

2. Detailed study of the Structure and Life-history of the following types;

(a) Protozoa Paramecium, Leishmania.

(b) Porifera Sycon –

(c) Cnidaria Obelia ;

(d) Platyhelminthes Fasciola ‘

ch) Mollusca Pila

(j) Hemichordata Balanoglossus

Group – B Cell Biology, Genetics And Evolution

1. Cell Biology and Genetics °

(a) Gametogenesis, Fertilization and Parthenogenesis

(b) Ultra structure and function of the following cell organellers Plasma

membrane, Endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Golgi body,

Ribosomes, Chromosome, Lysosome,

(c) Structure and function of DNA.

(d) Gene Mutation 7

(e} Linkage and Crossing over |

2 Evolution. . :

(a) Sources of hereditary variation and their role in evolution.

(b} Dewewin’s theory of Natural selection and Neo-Drawinisim.

(c) Isolating mechanisms and their role in evolution.

Practical

Subsidiary/ General

Time : 3 Hours

1. Dissection : (6

Pheretima : Reproductive system, .

Palaemon : Alimentary canel, Nervous System,

Pila: Alimentary canal, Nervous system, / .

B.Sc. Part – I

2. Mounting :’ (Permanent stained Preparation)

. Septal nephridia, Ovary and Setac of Pherctima,

” Statocyst of Prawn;

Radula and Osphradium of pila

3.Spotting:

(a) Museum Speimen 2 Nos

(b) Slides 3 Nos

(c) Evolution 1 Nos

4. Practial records

5. Viva – voce

B.Sc. Honours Part – I

Zoology

Theory

Paper – I

(Non – Chordate)

Time : 3 Hours Full Marks : 75

In all ten questions are to be set, out of which number i and 2 consists of

“objective (1×15 marks) and short answer (3×5) questions respectively and

both shall span over the whole syllabus in the paper. Students would be

required to answer five questions out of which question, number | and 2

shall be compulsory.

1. Bionomics-General characters and Classification (upto orders) of the

Following Phyla, Protozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhebminthes, Annelida.

Arthopoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Hermichordata.

2 Detailed study of the following types:

(a) Protozoa-Paramecium. Leishmania donovani, Entamoeba histolytica,

Polystomella (Elphidium), Trypanosoma, Vorticella.

(b)Porifera – Canal system, skeleton and reproduction, affinities of the phylum.

(c) Cnidaria – obelia, Aurelia, coral reef formation

(d) Ctenophora – General organization of hormiphora, affinities of the phylum.

(e) Platyhelminthes-Fasciols hepatica and Taenia solium,

(f)Aschelminthes-Ascaris lumbricoides, Wuchereia bancroti.

(g) Annelida – pheretima posthuma, hirudo.

(h) Arthropda – palaemon, peripatus, sacculina, larval forms of crustaces

(i) Mollusca – Unio, Pila, Sepia, Torsion and detorsion in gastropoda

(j) Echinodermata – Asterias

(k) Herichordata – Balanoglossus

Paper – II A

(Ecology, Animal Behavior And Biometry)

Time : 3 Hours Full Marks : 75

1. Ecology:

1. Concept of biosphere (Lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere)

2. Ecosystem definition, structure and function of pond ecosystem.

3. Major Ecosystems of the world-Structure (abiotic and biotic) function

including Energy flow in the following.

(a) Freshwater : .

(b) Grasé land

(c) Desert &

(d) Forest Ecosystem

4. Biogeochemical cycles (Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen & Sulphur).

5. Community structure & its ecological succession.

6. Pollution and its hazards; Green house effect, Ozone depletion.

7 Wild-life conservation.

II. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR:

1 Scope of Ethology, Innate and learned behavior.

2 Social behavior in insects,

3, Parental care in fishes and Amphibia.

4, Brooding, nesting and migratory behavior in birds, .

5. Concept of Biological clock.

III. Biometry:

1. Normal distribution.

2, Mean, Made and Median

3. Standard deviation

4. Standard error of Mean. Median and ‘Standard deviation,

5. Student I-test, Testing the significance of (i) the mean of random

sample from normal population (i) and the difference between,

means,

6. Chi Square teat a Se

(a) Goodness of fit

(b) Test of independence

Practical

(Paper – IB & IIB)

Time : 4 Hours

1. Dissection:

1. Dissection.

Pherctima and Leech : General Anatomy, Alimentary canal, Reproductive,

Excretory end Nervous system

Palaemon: Alimentary canal, Nervous system. .

Unio, Pila and Sepia : Nervous system, organs of Pallial complex of Fila

2. Permanent stained preparations of the following:

Paramecium’ Gemmules; spicules, Obelia colony, Nephridia andovary- of

Pheretima, Jaw of leech, statocys] of Prawn, Osphradiaum, Raduila and

gill of Pila, Gill of Unio, Glochidiun tarvae, larvae of Crustacea and,

Echiroders, Pedicillia.

3. Spotting (Each of two marks)

(i) Museum specime

(ii) Slides

(iii) Specimen relating to animal behavior or parental care.

4.Ecology

(i) Analysis of spoil/pond biota.

(ii) Determination of dissolved oxygen in different water samples.

(iii) Community structure of grassland.

(iv) Moisture content of soil sample

5.Biometery

Calculation of the arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the samples provided.

6. Record and field work

7. Viva – Voce.

URDU COMPOSITION PART – I (ARTS, SCIENCE & COMMERCE)

Time : 1.30 Hours

Distribution of Marks:

(a) Objective (10 question):

(b) Critical questions:

(c) Essay :

The Paper will consist of three question with alternative, one objective of 10 .

marks, one critical questions from prescribed books of 20 marks and one essay of

20″ marks. The students will have to answer all the question within frame of time.

Books Prescribed:

1. Adbiyat: published by Aiwan – e – Adab Patna

Prose:

(a) Rasmo – Riwaz : Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

(b) Urdu Hindi : Shiblee Nomani

(c) Swan : Prem Chand

(d) Mahshar : Akhtar Urain

(e) Mirza – Ke- Khatoot : Mirza Ghalib

Poetry:

(a) Jalwaye Darbar Delhi – By Akbar Allahabadi

(b) Khak – e- Hindi – by Briji Narain Chakrabarti

(c) Haweeqat – e- Husn – By Dr. Iqbaal

(d) Mazdoor Talib Lim – By Ahsan Bin Danish

(e) Payam – By Jamil Mazhari