The course shall consist of one Theory paper of 75 Marks. The pass marks will be 23 and the examination will be 3’ hours duration. There will be One Practical paper of 25 marks. The pass marks will be 10 and the examination will be of 3 hours duration.
The following will be the detailed Courses.
Paper – II
Time- 3 Hours Full Marks : 75
10 questions to be set, 5 to be answered. Question number one will be objective (15 Questions) and it will be Compulsory. 2 question will be set from’ Group-A from Group-B and 3 from Group-C Atleast one question from each group is to be answered. All question will be of equal marks.
There will be TEN questions each of ten (10) marks including Question No. 1 (one) will be of objective type and compulsory covering the entire syllabus. Three questions will be set from each group out of which FOUR to be answered selecting at least ONE from each group.
Tautomerism, Keto-enol tautomerism, Estimation of Keto and enolic content, Stersoidomerism, projection formulae elements of symmetry, geometrical and optical isomerism, E-Z and R-S modes of nomenclature.
Elementary idea of cofiguration, diastereoismerism, Asymmetry and dismmetry, walden inversion.
Electrophilic substitution in benzene nucleus, mechanism of nucleophilic substitution at saturated carbon.
Name reaction with their mechanism; Friedel-craft reactions, Sandmeyer Reactions, Gattermann-koch reactions, Caniizzaro’s reaction, Benzoin Condendation, Perkin reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction.
(e)Oxidation: Preparation of (I) Benzoic, acid from benzaldehyde and (ii)anthranilic acid ftom anthracene.
(f)Esterification : Prepasation of ethyl benzoate
3. Note Book and viva-vore.
(SUBSIDIARY AND GENERAL)
There will be TEN questions each of fifteen(15) marks including Question No. 1(one) will be objective type and compulsory covering the entire syllabus. Three questions will be set from each group out of which FOUR to be answered selecting at least ONE from each group.
(d) Hydrolysis of esters like ethyl benzoate and methyl salicylate. Records of class work and viva-voce.
(General and Subsidiary Course)
Stress should be given an development of ideas and theory development rather than solving problems. Problems should short and intelligent. There will be sixteen question to be set and eight to be answered selecting at least one from each group, One question will be objective/short answer will be compulsory, This question will be of sixteen marks and the rest questions are each of twelve marks.
There will be twelve questions to be set and Six to be answered in each paper selecting at least one from each group. One question will be objective: answer type and will be compulsory. This question will be of twenty marks and the rest questions are of each of sixteen marks in both the papers.
Scalar triple product and its geometrical interpretation. Vector triple product, scalar and vector products of four vectors, Work done by a force, moment of a force about a point and angular differentiation of vector point function, Differentiation of product of vectors, Gradient of a scalar field. Divergence and cur of vector functions.
Reduction of a force system to a force and 2 couple, Equation of the resultant General conditions of equilibrium of a system of forces acting in one plane upon a rigs body. Asiatic centre. Principle of Virtual work for any system of forces in one plane and its converse, omission of the force The Common Centenary and stability of equilibrium.
4.The Theory of Differential Equation-Kelly & Peterson.
There will be two theoretical and one practical paper in second year B.Sc. Part-II examination carrying 75 marks in each theory paper and 50 marks in practical paper.
PLANT PHYSILOGY AND ECOLOGY
Time: 3 Hours Full Marks: 75
The paper will consist often questions, out of which Question No. I wall be objective type and compulsory covering the entire syllabus. Outremaining 9 questions five questions shall be from Group-A and four from Group-B. Four questions has to be answered besides Question No. I selecting at least two
questions from each groups.
Physiology of Plant Cell: Colloidal system, imbibition, diffusion, osmois and plasmolysis. Plant-water relationships: Water potential and chemical potential, transpiration and its significance, factors affecting transpiration, mechanism of stomatal movement. Mineral nutrition: Criteria of essentiality of elements, macro and role of micronutrients, essential elements, mineral deficiency and plant disorders, nutrient uptake and transport mechanism,
Photosynthesis: Historical background and its significance, structure of photosynthetic apparatus, photosynthetic pigments, accessory pigments reaction centre complexes, photochemical reactions, photosynthetic electron transport, photophosphory-lation, the calvin cycle-C, cycle
Respiration: Glycolysis, TCA cycle and its regulation, electron transport system, pentose phosphate pathway ,cyanide-resistant respiration.
Transport of organic substances: Mechanism of translocation in the phloem.
Nitrogen metabolism: Biological nitrogen fixation, reduction of N2, into ammonia, nif-genes, regulation of nitrate reductase and nitrogenase, nitrate and Ammonium assimilation.
Growth and development: General aspect of definitions, Phases of growth, kinetic of growth, physiology of dormancy and seed germination, concept of photoperiodism.
Physiology of flowering: Florigen concept of phytohormones and their role, vernalization, senescence and fruit ripening, physiological role and mechanism of action of phylohormones-Auxins, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Absbisicacid and Eethylene, phytomorphogenesis, phytochrome, their Role and mechanism of action. Signal transduction-basic concept, plant movement-tropic and nastic. Biological clock
Introduction: Ecological factors (Biotic and abiotic) ccologkal amplitude, triggering factors-soil, water and atmosphere.
Ecological adaptation: Ecological groups of plants : Hydrophytes, Xerophytes, Halophytes. Community: Definition, composition, development of community and its structure. Method of study of communities, Succession such as hydrosere, lithosere.
Ecosystem: Concept, component and organization, energy flow, ecological efficiencies, cycling of C, N and P, characterization and structure of ecosystem, biotic and abiotic componertts, their inter-relanonsiaps, the trophic organization, auto trophy, heterotrophy, parasitem and detritus, food chain, food web and ecological pyramid.
Flow of Energy and materials: Flow of energy and materials within ecosystem, models of energy flow, ecosystem productivity, biogeochemical cycles, major types of ecosystem.
Phytogeography: General principles, vegetation in India.
Soil: Types of soil in India water hodding capacity, soil conservation & reclamation
DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS AND
Time: 3 Hours Full Marks: 75
Ten questions has to be set. Out of which Question No. 1 will be objective type and compulsory the entire syllabus. Out of remaining 9 questions. There will be five questions from Group-A and four from Group-B Four questions has to be answered besides Question No.1 selecting at least two questions from each group.
Group-A: DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS
Organization of the higher plant body: The shoot aud the root system, variations in habit and longevity environmental influences.
Meristems and development: Theories of shoot and root apical meristems lateral meristems and their functions, Range of for and structure of root, stem and leaf, their tissues and functions, mechanical tissues, organization of tissues in relation to environment. Secondary growth in Plants: Vascular cambium, secondary xylem (basic structure of wood), secondary Pholem and Periderm, Anomalous secondary growth (Boerhaavia, Mirabilis Achyranthes, Nyclanthes, Dracaena).
Embryology and Developmental Processes: Microsporogensis and development of male gametophyte, megasporogencsis and development of female gametophyte, endosperm
(morphological nature) and embryogeny. An outline of experimental embryology-anther and
PLANT RESOURCE UTILIZATION
Plant biodiversity: Concept, status utilization in India.
Origin of crop Plants and historical perspective of economic Botany and Ethnobotany.
Domestically of Plants: Primary and secondary centres of biodiversity. New introduction.
General account of Seeds producing oils- mustard, groundnut, soyabean and coconut, Pulses- Chickpea (Bengal Urad Gram), red gram (Arhar), gram, pea, masoor and mung, cereals-rice, wheat, maize, sorghurn, bajara, Sugar yielding-sugarcane, fibre yielding cotton, jute, coir, Vegetables- potato, brinjal, Timber and firewood-any ten species of your locality, Medicinal plant species at least 10 species of your locality Rubber yielding plants, essential oil yielding plants.
Ornamental Plants: Familiarity with seasonal and perennials species grown your locality.
Recycling of wastes and biogas resources.
Based on paper-III & IV
Time: 4 Hours Full Marks: 50
Experiment based on (i) Osmosis, Diffusion, Transpiration, photosynthesis, Respiration (ii) Separation of chloroplast pigments by either paper chromatography or solvent method
To extract enzymes and to sludy their activity-amylase lipase, acid phosphatase, catalase and peroxidase.
Bioassay of plant hormones-auxin, ethylene, G.A., ABA and cytokinin. 12
Determination of the minimum size of the quadrate by species area curve method.
To study ecological adaptations in plants
To study Selected soil properties such (any One) as texture, pH, carbonate, nitrate, base deficiency and reductivity.
Internal anatomy of Primary and secondary structure of angiospermic plants-normal and abnormal characters.
Embryo dissection (e.g Tridax procumbens) 12
To comment Upon spots (1-6) based on developments of plants and plant resource utilizations. 06
Class records 06
There shall be one theoretical paper carrying 75 marks and one Practical paper carrying 25 marks in B.Sc. Subsidiary-II examinations as mentioned below
BIODIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS AND THEIR SYSTEMATICS;
UTILIZATION OF PLANTS;
PLANT-PHYSIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL-BIOLOGY
Time: 3 Hours Full Marks: 75
Ten questions has to be set. Question No. 1 will be objective type and compulsory coveting the entire syllabus, Remaining 9 questions have to be set from three groups (A.B.C) in which four questions are to be answered besides Question No.- 1 selecting at least from each group.
BIODIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS AND THEIR SYSTEMATICS
Gymnosperm: Origin, evolution and classification. Biodiversity; Geological ‘time scale; fossilization and fossils.
Morphology of Vegetative and reproductive parts: Anatomy of root, stem and leaf; Reproducting and life cycle of Pinus, Cycas and Gnetum; their economic value.
Angiosperms: Origin and evolution, characteristic features of primitive angiosperms; Important rules of plant nomenclature (Binomial nomenclature)
Salient features of system proposed by Bentham and Hooker: Hulchinsan
Diversity in members of the families: Ranunculaceae, Rutaceae, Apiaceae, Apocyanaceac, Asclepiadaceac, Lamiaccae, Chenopodiaceae Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae
Plant and environment: Water, soil, atmosphere, light, temperature and biota. Morphological, anatomical and physiological responses of plants to water (hydrophytes and xerophytes)’, temperature (vernalization), light (photoperiodism) and salinity.
Plant community and ecosystems: succession-Hydrosere and Xerosere.
Pollutions: Soil, water and Air.
PRACTICAL PAPER BASED ON
Time: 3 Hours Full Marks: 25
Morphological and anatomical study of Gynmosperm-Pinus, Cycas and their temporary side preparation and identification 05
Description and identification of plants out of families included in the syllabus 05
3. To comment upon plant physiological experiments set up amongst-
(a) T/A ratio.
(b)Ganong’s potometer: Ratio of transpiration/Farmer’s photometer.
rate of transpiration.
(c) O2 evolved during Photosynthesis.
(d) Moll’s experiment
(e) Anaerodic respiration.
4. Anatomical ecological adaptation in Hydrophytes, Xerophytes, Mesophytes, Parasites and
OR Comment upon spots (I-V)of utilization of plants as described in syllabus 05
5. Class records. 03
6. Viva Voce. 02
There shall be one theoretical paper carrying 75 marks and one practical paper carrying 25 marks.
BIODIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS AND THEIR SYSTEMATIC AND STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT AND
REPRODUCTION FLOWERING PLANTS
Time: 3 Hours Full Marks: 75
Ten question has to be set Question No. 1 will be objective type and compulsory covering the syllabus. Remaining 9 questions have to be set from thee group (A, B) an which four questions are to be answered besides Question No. 1, selecting at least to from each group.
BIODIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS AND THEIR SYSTEMATICS
Gymnosperms: Origin evolution and classification, Biodiversity. Geological time scale, fossilization and fossils.
Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts: Anatonmy of root, stem and leaf. Reproduction and life cycles of Pinus, Cycas and Ephedra, their economic values.
Angiosperms, Origin and evolution: Characteristic features of primitive angiosperms, Important rules of plant nomenclature (Binomial nomenclatu Salient features of systems proposed by Bentham and Hooker Hutchinson.
Diversity of members of the families: Ranunculaceae, Rutaceae, Apiaceae, Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Cyperaceae amd Poaceae.
STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT AND
REPRODUCTIVE IN FLOWERING PLANT
The basic body plan of a flowering plant- Modular type of growth.
Shoot system: Meristems; Initiation, activity and functions of cambium Anamolous Secondary growth in Boerhaavia, Achyranthes and Dracaena, Root-stem transition and Periderm.
Embryological development: Development of anther, pollen grains, Embryo see, fertilization, endosperm and embryo, Brief idea of experimental embryology.
In all ten questions are to be set of which number 1 and 2 consists of objective (1×15 marks) and short answer (3×5) questions respectively and both shall span over the whole syllabus in the paper. Students would be required to answer five questions out of which question number 1 and 2 shall be compulsory.
In all ten question are to be set out of which number 1 and 2 consists of objective (1×15 marks) and short answer (3×5) question respectevly and both shall span over the whole syllabus in the paper. Students would be required to answer five questions out of which question number 1 and 2 shall be compulsory.
Study of following organ system in major Vertebrate groups.